Official statistics are of little value and are not given much credence, but other figures are available and considerable research has been carried out by voluntary social workers. The conclusion arrived at is that there appears to be two main categories of rape and rapists. There are men who, because of personality inadequacies and character or mental defects, derive pleasure mainly through subjecting the victim to cruelty and indignities. There are the vicious, callous and violent rapists. The other type derives perverse sexual pleasure through the sex act itself and these rapists have no urge to hurt or harm. They will often spend time in sensual talk, if circumstances permit. What has come to light, however, is a whole grey area for what has increased manyfold and is sometimes described as ‘positive’, ‘masterful’ or ‘aggressive’ sex embodied in the image some women have of ‘the great lover’. Research in several western countries indicates that women have now come to accept this as the ‘norm’, and in fact often anticipate or expect it. In this expression of ‘lovemaking’ the male sex urge is dominant. The problem arises when, having permitted the man to go so far, the woman does not wish to follow through to the culmination. In the past, when the man did proceed to what was considered the logical conclusion,
this was generally considered to be rape, unless the woman gave implicit consent, but these days it is not so. Women, having come to accept this male behavior as normal, and having their stereotyped image of the great lover in their subconscious, find it difficult to accuse the man of rape. It seems, from the evidence, that modern western women are prepared to accept and tolerate sexual advances, even if they refuse to ‘follow through’, whereas formerly this was considered ‘disrespectful’ and ‘degrading’. It is in this grey area that the subject of rape poses the greatest problems for those who have to deal with the victims and the perpetrators. This is where research becomes confused.